Are there any genetic defects in humans inherited from our evolutionary ancestors?

Yes. These “defects” are called evolutionary atavisms. An atavism is an ancestral trait that reappears after being lost in the previous generations. Sometimes these traits are stored in our DNA and express themselves by overriding the newer ones.
According to Darwin, some of these are: muscles of the ear, wisdom teeth, the appendix, the tail bone, body hair, male nipples.